Micro-Needle-Arrays by NIL:
Micro-Needle-Arrays are currently in research but show a great potential for subcutaneous drug delivery through the outermost layer of human skin. Nano-Imprint Lithography (NIL) using GeSiM micro-contact printers is a smart approach for production of such 3D structures. GeSiM instruments are able to manage the high-aspect-ratio of the needles by evacuating the area surrounding the stamp. The PDMS stamps are now available with special containment rings hooking up to a vacuum pump.
The GeSiM Nano-Plotter can be used for functionalization of indivual needles with biomolecules after contact printing.