Miniaturized Scaffolds from Biopolymers
Some applications require downscaling of 3D printing to get into the range of small organoids like blood vessels. BS3.1 offers tools for optimizing/ accomplishing standard pneumatic printing.
Solid biopolymers like PCL and PLA offer better 3D support than low-viscous bioinks and offer higher 3D resolution, respectively. The easiest way is to use the cartridge heater along with stainless steel cartridges and aluminum/steel needles.
Very thin needles plus high power: The High-Power-Syringe Extruder extends the range of the pneumatic system in terms of pressure (> 100 bar) and temperature (< 250°C).
Melt Electrospinning (MES) provides much smaller structures than pneumatic printing. It requires high electrical voltage (15…30 kV) between the dispense nozzle and the building platform.
The struts of the MES mesh have sizes down to 0.01 mm. PCL 50,000 was printed at a voltage of +30 kV and a pressure of 0.6 bar.